During these dark days of Doha Round deadlock, good news from the WTO is hard to come by. But, even your ever-pessimistic correspondent has managed to fetch--wait for it--reasonably good news involving the WTO. Although many people do not know of it, the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) signed under the auspices of the WTO way back in 1996 was a seminal event in the formation of global value chains in the electronics industry. By gradually encompassing more and more countries in tariff-free arrangements in the production of electronic goods, disparate nations have benefited. To use commercial lingo, ITA enabled both Super Mario and Samsung to each have their own (export) Galaxy.
Just to show you how I am in such a generous mood, I will even let Mr. Doha Round Failure himself, WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy, fill you in on ITA's importance:
The 21st century is the era of information and communication technology, and the ITA has played a vital role in promoting affordable access to those technologies. This sector is crucial for the world economy – not only due to its considerable size, but also because it is an important driver of productivity, innovation and, ultimately, economic growth. Over the past 15 years, world exports of IT products have almost tripled in value since 1996, and reached an estimated US $1.4 trillion in 2010, accounting for 9.5 percent of world merchandise trade. Together, ITA participants account for 96 percent of world trade in IT products. And because they provide duty-free treatment to imports on a most-favoured-nation basis, they have created opportunities for exporters in all WTO members, including those in least-developed countries.Good stuff, and there's much more information on the ITA's history, mechanics and future in the publication I excerpted Lamy from. As ever there's far too much interesting stuff to read if you're interested at all in international political economy. Rest assured that, sometimes at least, the WTO works.
With the most recent participation of Colombia, the ITA has now grown to include 74 WTO members, and the majority of them are developing participants. Developing countries have consistently increased their participation in world trade of IT products since 1996, accounting for approximately 64 percent of exports and 51 percent of imports in 2010. While a growing share of the investment in both the production and use of these products is made by developed country IT industries, IT spending is increasing considerably in some emerging economies, such as China, India and countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). These investments have been the catalyst that has allowed countries as diverse as China, Costa Rica, and some ASEAN countries to develop their capacity for manufacturing IT products and become important players in global production networks. In addition, other developing nations used these IT products and technologies as tools to become key players in other areas. For example, access to affordable IT equipment was instrumental in enabling India to become a powerhouse in consulting services, software development and other services.