As it has become the favorite entry point for undocumented migrants trying to sneak into the
United States, has become a laboratory for whether a state can single-handedly combat illegal immigration. Arizona
In recent years it has barred illegal immigrants from receiving government services, from winning punitive damages in lawsuits and from posting bail for serious crimes. A new state law shuts down businesses that hire illegal workers. And the sheriff of
Maricopa County, which includes and three-fifths of the state's population, dispatches his deputies and volunteer "posses" to search for illegal street vendors or immigrants being smuggled through the county. Phoenix
"What I love about what
is doing is we don't have to rely on the federal government," said state Rep. Russell Pearce, a Mesa Republican who has authored most of the toughest measures. "It has truly woken up the rest of Arizona that states can fix that problem." The campaign has had an effect: Illegal immigrants complain it's impossible to find good work and are leaving the state. It has also taken a toll on some U.S. citizens…Pauline Muñoz, a 39-year-old mother of six who was born in Phoenix, has been afraid to leave her apartment since being held by sheriff's deputies for 15 hours for a driving infraction -- an example of what she believes is racial profiling. America
And businesses that cater to immigrants both legal and illegal report a huge drop in sales, increasing the drag on the state's already troubled economy. "There used to be so many people they would fight for parking out there," said Omar Flores, 31, manager of La Mexicana market in western
. Now the grocery store is mostly empty. Phoenix
Economist Dawn McLaren of
said that part of what's pushing immigrants out is the collapse of the state's housing-based economy. In the construction sector, which employs many immigrants, 10% of jobs have vanished over the last year as home prices have plunged. The economic woes are magnified by the employer sanctions law, which has led some businesses to say they won't expand in Arizona State University , McLaren said. "It exacerbates the downturn," she said. Arizona
No one knows how many immigrants have left the state, and the most recent government figures show Arizona growing robustly -- as of July, Maricopa was the fastest-growing county in the nation. But enough immigrants have left that the government of
Sonora, the Mexican state bordering , has complained about how many people have arrived on its doorstep. Arizona
Pearce says the overall effect has been undeniably positive for
. "Smaller class sizes, shorter emergency room waits," he said. "Even if [illegal immigrants] are paying taxes -- and most of them aren't -- the cost to taxpayers is huge." Arizona
The biggest effect has come from the new employer sanctions law, which took effect in January. The law is fairly straightforward. Any business caught hiring illegal immigrants is put on probation. If it is caught doing the same thing again, the state revokes its business license. The only defense for an employer is if it used E-Verify, a federal pilot project to allow businesses to confirm the legality of their laborers.
The law did what it was supposed to with Jorge Hernandez, a 32-year-old illegal immigrant from
. He had been working in a Mexico tire shop for years when in December his bosses told him they'd have to let him go because of the new law. Now he struggles to support his family by working as a day laborer and is thinking of leaving."I've been in Phoenix for 11 years," he said. "This is the worst one. For those years I worked every day. I had money, I had a car." Hernandez dreams of moving to Arizona , where friends have told him the economy is stronger and sentiment against illegal immigrants weaker. "They don't have E-Verify there," he said in Spanish… New Mexico
Local law enforcement efforts, meanwhile, have drawn complaints about racial profiling. For the last two years, Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio has been testing how far a local law enforcement agency can go in combating illegal immigration. His deputies and trained volunteers have detained more than 1,000 illegal immigrants, many of whom were stopped for minor infractions and then asked about their immigration status. State legislators this month moved toward passing a law requiring all local police departments to start fighting illegal immigration. "I believe that if you get tough," Arpaio said, illegal immigrants "will disappear."
Immigrant-rights groups and attorneys have complained that Arpaio's attack on illegal immigrants leads to Latinos constantly being asked about their citizenship status. Some cite Muñoz's case as an example of perils to Arpaio's approach…
Muñoz was held for 15 hours after being stopped on a speeding violation in
in December. Deputies discovered she did not have a driver's license. She was placed in a van with several arrested illegal immigrants, taken to jail and held for several hours of processing before a judge released her. "It's only because of the way you look," Muñoz said. "Even though I'm from here, I don't feel safe to go out and do anything." Phoenix
Sheriff's Capt. Paul Chagolla, a department spokesman, said Muñoz was detained for driving without a license. She was kept with the illegal immigrants because "when we run an operation we don't always have transport" for individual suspects, he said.
Arpaio said that there have been few specific complaints of profiling and that his deputies ask suspects about immigration status only when they see a possible crime committed. He has no apologies for his tactics or their contribution to a flight of illegal immigrants from
. "The more who leave, the better," he said. "They shouldn't be here in the first place." Arizona
♠ Posted by Emmanuel in Migration at 4/06/2008 12:48:00 AMThe sheriff for Arizona's Maricopa Country which encompasses most of the Phoenix metro area, Joe Arpaio, is infamous for issuing inmates pink underwear to deter theft of prison-issue boxers. He too is infamous for innovating the use of female chain gangs. Arpaio has also enlisted a volunteer "posse" in a crackdown on illegal immigrants that has many taking offence for perceived racial profiling. If you are a longtime reader of the IPE Zone, you know of my basic attitude towards Mexican migration: while there are indeed a few bad hombres like drug smugglers and coyotes, most of these folks just want to earn an honest living doing stuff the gringos (Americans) don't want to. Anecdotal evidence in the article below suggests illegal immigrants are seeking their fortunes in other nearby states or are heading back to Mexico. The LA Times describes how many of the businesses catering to the Latin population are falling under hard times as a result, possibly exacerbating the slowing economic activity in Maricopa as housing construction activity slows. Of course, undocumented workers are plentiful in the construction sector. Love him or loathe him, Sheriff Arpaio is an act that's hard to follow in the art of law enforcement...